The list of contractual agreements in the BOT act is not exhaustive. Other forms of contractual arrangements may be considered PPPs under the BOT Act, provided that such an agreement is approved by the President. Other forms of contracts recognized as PPPs are concession and management contracts. Throughout history, governments have resorted to such a mix of public and private efforts.   Muhammad Ali of Egypt used “concessions” in the early 1800s to obtain public works at minimal cost, while concession companies made most of the profits from projects such as railways and dams.  Much of the early infrastructure in the United States was built through public-private partnerships. These include the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike Road in Pennsylvania, which was launched in 1792, a first line of steamships between New York and New Jersey in 1808; many railroads, including the nation`s first railroad, were chartered in New Jersey in 1815; and most of the modern electricity grid. [Citation needed] In Newfoundland, Robert Gillespie commissioned Reid to operate the railways for fifty years beginning in 1898, although they were originally to become his property by the end of the period. [Citation needed] However, the late 20th and early 21st centuries saw a clear trend towards governments increasingly using various PPP agreements around the world.  This trend appears to have reversed since the 2008 global financial crisis.  Among the different possible classifications, PPPs can be divided into two types: PPPs of a purely contractual nature and PPPs of an institutional nature. This categorization is adopted by the European Union and many other countries. In general, there are two common forms of PPP structure: availability and concession-based PPPs.
The two forms could be distinguished from each other depending on what the public or private parties within the partnership assume, that is, .B rights, obligations and risks. Delegated management contracts: Another format of contractual PPPs are delegated management contracts, which border on PPPs based on the risk transferred in each situation. They include relatively short periods (3 to 8 years); Payment from the private partner is made by the public partner (instead of collecting the revenue directly from the end user), often depending on the service provided (e.g.B. the operation of a drinking water treatment plant is paid for on the basis of the m3 of treated drinking water). This agreement consists essentially of the provision of services through outsourcing; While some of the principles of PPPs apply to this case (e.B. output orientation), it is not a “true partnership”. Delegated management contracts are often used to prepare broader PPP contracts, long-term concession contracts e.B or even divestitures. PPPs have been highly controversial as financial instruments, mainly due to concerns that the public return on investment is lower than the returns for the private lender. PPPs are closely linked to concepts such as privatization and the provision of public services.   The lack of a common understanding of what a PPP is and the secrecy of its financial details make the process of assessing the success of PPPs complex.  Proponents of P3 emphasize risk sharing and the development of innovation, while critics condemn its higher costs and liability issues.
 For example, evidence of the cost-benefit and effectiveness performance of PPPs is mixed and often non-existent.  Government-private sector partnership for infrastructure and development projects can be facilitated by a wide range of modalities. Here are the contractual arrangements that can be entered into under the amended Philippine BOT Act and its revised implementing rules and regulations: Leasing/Leasing: A variant of the PPP concession model are leasing contracts. This model is analogous to the concession model, with the exception of investments and infrastructure financing, which are the responsibility of the public and not the private partner. This form of contractual PPP may be appropriate in situations where assets have already been built up and investments in infrastructure are not necessary or where the risk premium for the transfer of this responsibility to the private partner is very high. The commercial risk continues to be attributed a priori to the private party, and the duration of the contract is often shorter than with a concession (usually between 10 and 18 years). Public-private partnership (PPP) can generally be defined as a contractual agreement between the government and a private company to finance, plan, implement and operate infrastructure and services traditionally provided by the public sector. It embodies an optimal allocation of risk between the parties – minimizing costs while achieving the project`s development objectives. In this way, the project should be structured in such a way that the private sector receives a reasonable return on investment. In economic theory, public-private partnerships have been studied through the prism of contract theory.
The first theoretical study on PPPs was conducted by Oliver Hart.  From the point of view of economic theory, a PPP differs from traditional public procurement of infrastructure services in that PPPs group together the construction and operation phases. Therefore, the private company has strong incentives in the construction phase to make investments compared to the operation phase. These investments can be desirable, but also undesirable (for example. B if the investments reduce not only operating costs but also the quality of service). Therefore, there is a trade-off, and it depends on the situation whether a PPP or a traditional market is preferable. Hart`s model has been extended in several directions. For example, the authors examined various externalities between the construction and operation phases, insurance when companies are risk-averse, and the impact of PPPs on incentives for innovation and information gathering.   Value-for-money assessment methods have been incorporated into the PFI and its Australian and Canadian counterparts beginning in the late 1990s and early 2000s. :The 2012 Chapter 4A study showed that value for money as an effective method of evaluating PPP proposals was still insufficient.  The problem is that it is not clear what the catchy term “value for money” means in practice and in technical detail. A Scottish listener once called it a “technocratic mumbo-jumbo”.
:Chapter 4 Contractual PPPs: In the context of purely contractual PPPs, there are different types of agreements depending on the characteristics of the contractual relationship and the delegation of tasks to the private partner. Some of the best-known models lie in the development of urban infrastructure: the associated service provision corresponds to the “concession model”. In this situation, there is a direct link between the private partner and the end user: the private partner provides a service to the public “instead of”, although under the control of a public authority. The private party assumes full responsibility for the construction, operation and maintenance of infrastructure facilities and charges users for the service. As a rule, the concession model is associated with long contractual terms that correspond to the long life of the infrastructure. Throughout the reference manual, PPPs are described using three general parameters: first, the nature of the asset concerned; second, the functions for which the private party is responsible; and third, how the private part is paid. PPIAF funded the publication of the 2019 Guidelines on PPP Contract Provisions. The first forecasts were published in 2017 and focused on eight selected contractual conditions that are essential to the bankability of a PPP project.
The 2017 guidelines were the first attempt by a Multilateral Development Bank (MDS) to prepare a compilation of these standardised clauses. The new 2019 version took into account the feedback received by the World Bank as part of the engagement of stakeholders, such as. B climate change considerations, social and environmental impacts and infrastructure sustainability. It also contains three additional chapters on contracting authority entry rights, termination events and the return of assets at the end of the PPP contract. What are PPPs? Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are contractual arrangements that the government enters into with the private sector. Under a PPP programme, the private sector can build, operate and maintain public infrastructure and provide services traditionally provided by the government. Examples include roads, airports, bridges, hospitals, schools, prisons, railways, and water and sanitation projects. A 2013 study published in the State and Local Government Review found that definitions of public-private partnerships vary considerably from municipality to municipality: “Many public and private officials promote public-private partnerships for a number of activities when the relationship is in fact contractual, a franchise, or the transfer of a previous public service to a public private service or non-profit organization. A more general term for such agreements is “shared service delivery,” in which public entities partner with private companies or non-profit organizations to provide services to citizens.   4) The existing literature on the contractual management of PPPs was reviewed to better understand what guidelines are currently available, including the gaps that exist. .